When is it ok to use music in a news video?

When I was first learning video storytelling, and when I was first teaching it to my co-workers, I would have told you it is never a good idea to use music in your news video. I was a stickler for natural sound, and adding music is fraught with ethical and legal issues that are better avoided. Both of these are still true for me, but I have softened my stance somewhat for some types of videos. My rule used to be only include music that was part of the natural sound and relevant to the story. This piece about a composer and a high school choir made use of music in a natural sound context.

I think the reason so many people want to include music when they are learning video storytelling is that musical scores are so ubiquitous in the film and television that we watch. A movie scene without its score can seem dry, as evidenced by this scene from Star Wars that someone removed the musical score from.

Music sets the tone for movie scenes, even when you don’t notice that it’s there. In fact, the type of music used can completely change our perception of the scene we are watching. A YouTube user added three different musical scores to a scene from Pirates of the Caribbean, giving it three completely different feels.

You could see how this could be a problem in a journalistic context. Heavy-handed use of music in a journalistic piece risks adding a mood that wasn’t there, or telling the viewers how they should feel instead of allowing them to experience the story on their own. Copyright is the other reason to avoid adding a musical soundtrack. There is no rule of fair use that allows you to use a certain amount of a song. Musical compositions and recordings are copyrighted materials, and you need to pay the rights holder for the right to use them.

I still think that for straightforward news pieces, like the kind of video you would see on a television newscast, you should avoid adding music. But for more feature-type pieces, I’ve been taking more inspiration from documentaries and from radio storytelling like This American Life. The video at the top was shot in about an hour, with an interview and a few drawings done just for me. We had almost no natural sound, so I wanted some subtle music to add some pace and feel. I used a track from some friends of the reporter who were nice enough to let us use it for free. This, I feel, is the best way around the issue of copyright: find a musician you know or who is local to you and work out an agreement. This also avoids another issue that I see from time to time with royalty-free music.

There are many royalty-free music sources out there, the easiest of which is the folder of music that comes installed with Apple software like GarageBand or SoundTrack Pro. If you work with these enough, you will start to notice them in PowerPoint presentations, low-budget advertisements, and other online videos. A composer named Kevin McLeod has a great royalty-free music site, but I’ve even started to recognize some of his pieces in multiple places around the web.

The best option, in my opinion, is to find someone who can compose a simple musical score for you. There are lots of musical hobbyists out there, and there is probably even someone in your own newsroom who plays the guitar or piano. Rick Koster, The Day’s arts writer, used to be a bass player in a band, and he has played acoustic guitar to score several of my video projects. Below are two longer historical pieces that were based mostly on interviews, with no natural sound footage.

The most recent piece was a story about migrating swallows that blended poetry and music.

Adding music means a significant increase in production time, so you need to make sure that the end result will be worth it. If you’re going to use a royalty-free piece, it can mean hours looking for the right piece. If someone is going to compose a piece for you, they need the time to see your video and compose something, and then you need to record it. Music also adds another layer of complexity to the sound mixing process. The great thing about the online publishing space is it allows for more creativity in storytelling, including the use of music. Creators just need to make good choices in selecting music, because a bad selection will stand out as heavy-handed, and can be worse than no music at all.

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News videos going viral

If I am to believe the endless stream of spam messages we receive on YouTube, there is a secret to making your videos go viral, and the people who know the secret will happily tell you…for a price. Well I’m telling you that there is no secret, but there are steps that you can take beyond just creating interesting content that will get your videos in front of a wider audience.

The first step, a no-brainer, is creating something that people will want to watch. Eric Seals, a photojournalist at The Detroit Free Press, was asked in 2012 to shoot a quick video on his iPhone of a turkey that was harassing a local woman. Seals recognized this as an opportunity for an interesting story, and instead shot it with a combination of camcorder and GoPro, giving viewers a unique up close look that would have been difficult with an iPhone. The Free Press uses Brightcove as their video host, and does does push videos out to other platforms like YouTube. The large audience of the Free Press, combined with social sharing, led the Godzilla the Turkey video to spread organically, getting more than 300,000 views on the first day, according to Seals.

The video’s spread was aided by embeds on national news sites like The Huffington Post, USA Today and Time. Seals told me he did numerous TV and radio interviews in the following days, and that the story was mentioned on Saturday Night Live’s Weekend Update segment. There’s no doubt this story would have been interesting even if it was a simple iPhone video, but by going the extra mile with the GoPro and editing that emphasized the humor of the story, Seals turned out a viral sensation. Having “the right kind of video and the right duration” are the keys to going viral, Seals said during a phone interview from his home in Michigan. Keeping the video in the company’s own video player ensured that their branding was seen every time the video was played on another site, and any pre-roll ads associated with the video would have received the increased impressions.

For news outlets that don’t have as big an audience as the Free Press, YouTube offers the ability to reach a worldwide audience. The Cape Cod Times, a much smaller newspaper, recently switched from YouTube to Brightcove as their primary video host, but they continue to post their videos to YouTube as well. Eric Williams hosts the video series CapeCast, and has seen some decent success on YouTube. His most-watched video on the CCT YouTube channel is a profile on a maker of giant swords that is at 1.8 million views.

Williams told me in an email that they use YouTube because the platform “gives video a longer shelf life and youtube videos show up better in search results.” The Cape Cod Times does have an audience of summer residents and vacationers that fall outside the paper’s geographic print distribution, but they are still consumers of the daily news product who may not find an interesting video that they didn’t see on the day it was published. YouTube allows you to reach an audience actively looking to consume video content, no matter the publication date.

We’ve had a similar experience at The Day. Our YouTube champ is a video of police testing the decibel level of a teen’s dirt bike after neighbors complained. We had maybe a few thousand views on our site when it was published, but the YouTube version continues to get 10,000-20,000 views a week for a total of 1.1 million so far.

It’s not a particularly interesting video, but it appeals to a passionate niche audience (dirt bike riders) and presents a controversial issue that 1,600 people have commented on so far. This reach has been completely organic and has occurred long after the story was initially published on theday.com.

We encountered a similar situation with a video tour of a funeral home that we published back in 2008. Again, it had a few thousand views on our site, but has over 1 million on YouTube. This is a case of showing the audience something they can’t see anywhere else. Interest on YouTube built slowly several years after publication, mostly through shares and related videos.

One other viral success story I’ll share from The Day happened back in 2010, and was the result of some intentional changes in my workflow. I was covering the UConn women’s basketball team on the night they would surpass the UCLA men for the longest winning streak in college basketball. I was one of many media outlets at the post-game press conference when coach Geno Auriemma took a phone call from President Obama at the podium. I published the video immediately to YouTube and shared the link on Facebook and Twitter. Because I was the first one to publish this, it was embedded on several news sites, including Yahoo Sports. The video was watched 500,000 times, with 450,000 of the views coming in the two days following the game.

I’ve heard the argument that posting to YouTube steals audience from your own site, but I haven’t found that to be the case. While there may be some overlap, the YouTube audience includes many more people who will never find their way to your site. To counter any concerns, we usually wait at east a few days to send a video to YouTube. YouTube’s partner program give you the opportunity to earn revenue, though it’s considerably less than you could earn on ads served through your own video player. We’ve found YouTube revenue to be around $1-2 per 1,000 views.

So what are the lessons here?

  • You’re not always going to find a turkey on a rampage, but having an animal in your video never hurts. Or more broadly, as Williams put it, “find cool stuff and people and have a sense of adventure and goofiness and fun.”
  • Passionate niche audiences (dirt bike fans, guys who like big swords) will watch, share and comment.
  • Letting people see something they can’t always see (inside a funeral home, big swords) will get their attention.
  • Politics will always stir up controversy (Obama) even if you think the video has nothing to do with politics (see the comments on the dirt bike video).

Both Seals and Williams stressed sharing videos via social media. Seals said he has been experimenting with breaking longer video projects into 15 second versions for Instagram. When you look at what millions of people will watch, it can be a little depressing. Seals expressed disappointment that “things that matter, and things that move people…never get as many clicks.” Williams suggested not spending lots of hours producing something that few people will watch. As journalists, I think we want to work on stories that we think are important, but it is also important to cater to your audience sometimes, and give them something that will capture their attention. In the long term, I hope this will pay off in more eyeballs on the serious, more crafted projects.

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Kayaking to see the seals – and trying to shoot video at the same time

It was already a week past the first day of spring, but it didn’t feel like it at nine in the morning on Esker Point Beach in Groton. The grass and sand were covered with a fresh layer of snow, and the parking lot was so slick with ice that I almost fell getting out of the car. The kayaks being unloaded from the car next to me seemed just a bit out of place.

I’ve always been a fair weather paddler. A few summer camp canoe trips in the wind and rain, but I’d never been out on the water when the air was below freezing. I remember one spring regatta on my college sailing team when it snowed, but it’s a lot easier to stay dry sailing a dinghy near shore than it is sitting in a kayak in open water. Fishers Island sound is not exactly the middle of the ocean, but the wind can whip up some chop out there.

I was on the beach at the behest of my colleague Steve Fagin, who writes an outdoors blog for The Day. We had collaborated in the past on a few videos, including one about making maple syrup, and he took me out in his tandem kayak when I was filming the migrating swallows on the Connecticut River. This time he wanted to take me to see the seals who spend the winter in the waters around Fishers Island. After several attempts when the weather or the tide or our schedules would not cooperate, we finally settled on a day when everyone could make it, the weather was beautiful, and the tide was low in the late morning. For four of us, it was going to be a fun excursion. For me, it was also going to be a day of work, trying to put together a coherent video despite several challenges:

Challenge #1: Staying warm. I realized when I arrived that my sailing spray suit was not the best choice, as some of out fellow paddlers donned drysuits and thick neoprene gloves. I wore sailing gloves with neoprene backs and leather palms. My hands were wet almost the minute we hit the water, and shortly after that my fingers were numb. Steve let me borrow a pair of expedition weight mittens when we got to Fishers Island. They weren’t waterproof, but they kept my hand far warmer than the other gloves. Also, I was wearing medium weight wool socks and Chuck Taylors, while everyone else wore neoprene booties. My feet were numb by the time we arrived back on shore. If there is a next time, I’m not going out without a drysuit or at least a wetsuit.

Challenge #2: Shooting and paddling. I was in the front of the tandem with Steve, so I didn’t technically have to paddle at all, but I would have felt bad if I had been a useless weight in the bow of the boat for the entire trip. So I alternated between shooting and paddling. When I went back to edit, I saw times where I wished I had shot a little more.

Challenge #3: Keeping camera gear dry. What I really needed was a waterproof housing, or at least a splash bag. This would have allowed me to shoot with a professional camera. Since we don’t have anything like that, and I wasn’t going to risk killing $5,000 of electronics, my options were limited. I packed an old Canon HV20 in a dry bag that I kept under my spray skirt. I only pulled this out when we saw the seals. The rest of the footage is shot with a pair of GoPros. I clamped one onto the shaft of my paddle, and hung the other around my neck on a lanyard. These would give me the waterproof protection, but the lenses are too wide to capture a seal unless its swimming alongside the boat.

Challenge #4: Finding the seals. We went to a rocky beach on Fishers Island where Steve thought he had seen the seals before. We didn’t see any. After hiking around for a few minutes, we got back in the boats and paddled west, where we finally encountered about a dozen seals.

Challenge #5: Steady video from a kayak. The waves were not very big, but shooting handheld with a small lightweight camera and zooming in on a distant object is hard enough on dry land. Add in a little pitching and rolling and it can be impossible to even keep the subject in the frame. I did my best to hold steady, and picked the few usable shots for the above video. Sorry if it makes anyone seasick.

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Making three cameras look like six

Song Spinner is an occasional series that I produce for The Day with music writer Rick Koster. The concept is simple – shoot a musical performance, interview the songwriter, combine the two pieces. The problem with being a one-man-band video journalist and shooting a musical performance for editing is it’s difficult to get the variety of shots necessary to have an edit every three to five seconds. These pieces are about the music and the story behind the song, but in order to keep the viewer visually interested it’s best not to linger on a single shot for too long.

To get around this, I started bringing multiple cameras to these shoots, first two, and then adding a third. Almost every time we shot one of these, the musician or band asked to do a second take. I realized that I could use this second take as a chance to switch up camera angles and double the number of angles I have to edit from.

Usually, the performers have been happier with the second take, so I use the first take for a lot of the close-ups: hands strumming guitars, isolated camera on the drummer, etc. I also keep an eye out for details that I want to catch the second tie around with an eye toward where I will make the edits: the guitar player’s foot on the pedal board right before the solo, or the place where the bass starts in the opening of the song.

For this shoot, I used a Sony EX1R, a Sony PMW 200, and a GoPro Hero 4. The GoPro is nice because it can fit into small places, like right next to a drum kit, and also because it is wide enough to get the whole band in a small room.

Synching up the video clips during the edit can be tricky. We chose to make these live performances, instead of lip-synching to a playback track the way you would do in a music video. It just seems more authentic that way. But because it’s live, the tempos of the two takes are almost never exactly the same. It’s not too hard to synch up the three cameras from an individual take. I either clap at the start of the recording to imitate a film slate, or use something like the waveform of the drumbeat to synch clips on the timeline. You could also use software like PluralEyes.

I synch the two takes separately, and then determine which one I will use for the audio track. I then start matching up the other take to the chosen audio track. This involves cutting the clips every measure or two to get them in synch with the others. This leaves gaps on the timeline, but having six angles to choose from makes it easy to cover the gaps. When I get to choosing which angles to use when, there is always a little bit of sliding left and right on the timeline to get the vocals and drum beats to match exactly. The result is a video that looks like it was shot with six cameras, but requires bringing far less gear along.

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Competition from citizen journalists (or why I’m shooting with my camera and an iPhone at the same time)

Waterford wins on buzzer beater, 62-60 over Sheehan. Complete highlights at http://bit.ly/1D83o1C

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Now that everyone has a smartphone and video sharing has become so popular, journalists face competition from more than just other news outlets. A high school basketball game this week illustrated this point quite nicely. It used to be that when I covered a game, I would just produce a highlights package and post it to or site when I was done editing, usually 2-3 hours after the game. I started experimenting with posting a shorter clip immediately after the game, and found that these short clips often receive more views than the edited package.

While posting the raw clip is much faster, it still takes me a little bit of time. I have to shoot post-game interviews, go back to my car, import the clip from my camera to my laptop, compress and upload. When Wednesday’s game ended with a buzzer beater, I first tweeted a link to a buzzer beater by the same player from exactly one year ago.

Once the video of this year’s buzzer beater was uploaded, I tweeted the link.

I noticed that someone in the crowd had tweeted their own video 20 minutes earlier.

We have a similar number of followers, but his post, by virtue of being first, had twice as many retweets and favorites. At least one other person tweeted out their own video, and there could be others that I didn’t see.

Now Twitter engagements are not our only measure of success. The tweets are really a way to drive traffic to our site and promote the stories and highlights that no one else has. We offer a quality of coverage that people can’t find anywhere else, but it doesn’t hurt to be first.

With that in mind, I went to Friday’s playoff game between Ledyard and Hillhouse prepared to be first. There is no way to get video off my Sony video camera as quickly as a smartphone can publish to the web, so I mounted by iPhone on the cold shoe on the front of the camera. Ledyard had the ball with the game tied and time running out, so I started recording on both cameras. A buzzer beater attempt was blocked, and the game went to overtime, but I got the video posted via Tout and tweeted it before the new period started.https://twitter.com/phuoppi/status/576542891117527040
At the end of the overtime period, Ledyard was trailing by one and had a chance to win it at the buzzer. The shot missed, but I used the same workflow as above to get the video on Tout and Twitter right away.

Had he made the shot, I’m sure the video would have been shared around the local basketball community a lot more than it was, but at least I have a solution for future buzzer beaters.

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Surround the live stream with on-demand content

Last night was our last live basketball game of the winter. It was a highly anticipated rematch of a regular season game that we streamed between undefeated New London, ranked number two in the state, and number nine Ledyard. There was plenty of hype preceding the game, especially because two of Ledyard’s coaches and three of their players are former New London Whalers. That hype brings natural publicity, but since live streaming video is still a relatively new venture for a small newspaper, we want to make sure as much of our potential audience as possible knows about the webcast, and that people are familiar with some of the characters involved.

To that end, the video open (above) that we use at the start of the game also serves as a promo. It was voiced by play-by-play announcer Casey O’Neill and edited from clips of three of our earlier webcasts. Because Casey has a day job, assistant sports editor Mike DiMauro writes the text for the open, I edit it and forward it to Casey, who records the voice over on his phone and then emails it back to me. Not the highest quality solution, but it’s the most efficient thing we can manage with people at three different locations working different schedules with no studio to use as a home base.

Usually we include video features in our pregame and halftime shows, but we wouldn’t have time to produce feature for the final. The finalists were determined on Wednesday evening, and I would have to get everything ready for the webcast by 2pm Friday at the latest. We rolled the dice and assumed New London would make the final, and Casey and I recorded an interview with coach Craig Parker and senior Collin Sawyer. Our plan was to record a similar interview on Thursday with a coach and player from the winner of Wednesday’s second semifinal. Since the weather forecast for Thursday was looking bad, we recorded the second interview with Ledyard coach Dave Cornish and senior Phyllip Thomas in the gym immediately after the Wednesday games. We posted the full interviews the night before the game and used a shorter edit of each in the pregame show.

The game lived up to the hype, and we posted the full replay and an edited highlight video immediately after.

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Behind the Scenes on a Billy Gilman music video shoot

I probably say this all the time, but one of the best parts of my job is getting to go places and see things that the average person doesn’t get to. On Monday, country music artist Billy Gilman was filming a music video in New London, so I went along with Rick Koster to do a quick story.

Gilman is from nearby Hope Valley, RI, and became popular at a young age with the song “One Voice.” I only vaguely remembered the song, and was not familiar at all with the now 25-year-old’s current music career. Judging by the reactions on Twitter and Instagram, a lot of people would have been star struck to be there. I was actually more excited to see the technical side of filming a music video. The crew was small, but they had a smoke machine and a remote focus control for the camera, two toys I’ve never had the chance to play with.

Interview with @rickkosterbooks and @BillyGilman before music video shoot

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We started with an interview. We were promised five minutes, but Billy sat down with us for about twenty. He was super friendly, and spoke very openly about the challenges he faced as a former child star, and as someone who had recently come out publicly in the fairly conservative world of country music.

They had been filming scenes around New London for most of the day, but I had to fit the shoot in between assignments, so I only got to see one scene on stage at The Garde Arts Center. I was excited to see the technical side of the process, but also a little weary of getting in the way. The few times I’ve been on or around a film set as a journalist, I got a very chilly reception. I totally understand this, as the crew has a lot to get done and don’t need other people in the way.

Director Alec Asten and the small crew from Firesite Films could not have been nicer. I was able to shoot right up on stage with them, often looking over their shoulders while they rolled. I didn’t have a lot of time, so being able to move freely around them made it a lot easier to get the shots I needed and get out of there. If I had more time, I would have liked to shoot from the seats in the theater to get the opposite view, and also more cutaways of the camera operator would have helped. Also, had I had time earlier in the day, seeing them filming around town would have been nice.

As it was, I had to leave after about 30 minutes to get to a pair of high school basketball games. I edited my video on the MacBook after the games were over. I look forward to seeing Billy’s video when it’s released.

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